Types of Crops and Crop Seasons in India

In India there are three major crop seasons – :
(i) Kharif,
(ii) Rabi, and
(iii) Zaid,

Kharif crops:
1. The Khariff crops are associated with the monsoon season. They are sown in the months of June and July and are harvested in autumn months i.e. in September and October.
2. Important Khariff crops are rice, jowar, maize, cotton, ragi, bajra, sugarcane and jute.
Rabi crops:
1. The Rabi crops are sown in the period between October and December and harvested in April and May.
2. Important Rabi crops are wheat, peas, pulses, mustard and rapeseed.
Zaid crops:
1. Zaid crops are sown in the summer season.
2. Important Zaid crops are rice, maize, sunflower, vegetables and groundnut.

Agricultural crops can be broadly divided into two categories – :
(i) food crops, and
(ii) non-food crops

Food crops – Food crops consists of cereals and pulses. Among the cereals are included rice, wheat, maize, bajra, jowar, etc. Pulses include gram, masur, arhar, moong, etc.
Non-food crops – Non food crops comprise of cash crops such as sugarcane, tobacco, jute, cotton, etc.
Tea, coffee and rubber are included among the plantation crops.
Fruit, vegetables, coconut, cashew, etc are included among the horticulture crops.