Rajiv Gandhi (1984–89)

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Rajiv Gandhi, in full Rajiv Ratna Gandhi, (born August 20, 1944, Bombay [now Mumbai], India—died May 21, 1991, Sriperumbudur, near Madras [now Chennai]), Indian politician and government official who rose to become the leader of the Congress (I) Party (a faction of the Indian National Congress [Congress Party] established in 1981) and served as prime minister of India (1984–89) after the assassination of his mother, Indira Gandhi, in 1984. He was himself assassinated in 1991.

Rajiv and his younger brother, Sanjay (1946–80), the sons of Feroze and Indira Gandhi, were educated at the prestigious Doon School in Dehra Dun (now in Uttarakhand state). Rajiv then attended Imperial College, London, and completed an engineering course at the University of Cambridge (1965). He met his future wife, Sonia, during his time in England. After returning to India, he acquired a commercial pilot’s license and, beginning in 1968, worked for Indian Airlines.

While his brother was alive, Rajiv largely stayed out of politics; but, after Sanjay, a vigorous political figure, died in an airplane crash on June 23, 1980, Indira Gandhi, then prime minister, drafted Rajiv into a political career. In June 1981 he was elected in a by-election to the Lok Sabha (lower chamber of national parliament) and in the same month became a member of the national executive of the Indian Youth Congress (the youth wing of the Congress Party).PauseUnmuteLoaded: 0%Progress: 0%Remaining Time-0:30Fullscreen

Whereas Sanjay had been described as politically “ruthless” and “willful” (he was considered a prime mover during the state of emergency his mother decreed in India in 1975–77), Rajiv was regarded as a nonabrasive person who consulted other party members and refrained from hasty decisions. After his mother was killed on October 31, 1984, Rajiv was sworn in as prime minister that same day and was elected leader of the Congress (I) Party a few days later. He led the Congress (I) Party to a landslide victory in elections to the Lok Sabha in December 1984, and his administration took vigorous measures to reform the government bureaucracy and liberalize the country’s economy. Gandhi’s attempts to discourage separatist movements in Punjab state and the Kashmir region backfired, however, and after his government became embroiled in several financial scandals, his leadership became increasingly ineffectual. He resigned his post as prime minister in November 1989 after the Congress (I) Party was defeated in parliamentary elections, though he remained leader of the party.Get unlimited access to all of Britannica’s trusted content.

In May 1991 Gandhi was campaigning in Tamil Nadu state for the next round of parliamentary elections when he and 16 others were killed by a bomb concealed in a basket of flowers carried by a woman associated with the Tamil Tigers. In 1998 an Indian court convicted 26 people in the conspiracy to assassinate Gandhi. The conspirators, who consisted of Tamil militants from Sri Lanka and their Indian allies, had sought revenge against Gandhi because the Indian troops he had sent to Sri Lanka in 1987 to help enforce a peace accord there had ended up fighting the Tamil separatist guerrillas. After Rajiv’s death, his widow, Sonia Gandhi, took over the leadership of the Congress Party (the “I” designation was formally dropped in 1996).This article was most recently revised and updated by Kenneth Pletcher, Senior Editor.

harat Ratna Rajiv Gandhi, at 40, was the youngest prime minister of India. In his five years of rule from 1984 to 1989, the young leader made some sincere efforts to take the country to the 21st century.

Rajiv Gandhi laid the foundation of a modern India. He left an imprint of modernity.

Telecom Revolution

Rajiv Gandhi is hailed as the ‘Father of Information Technology and Telecom Revolution of India’. He is rightfully known as the architect of digital India.

It was under his rule that Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) was established in August 1984 to develop state-of-the-art telecommunication technology and meet the needs of the Indian telecommunication network.

C-DOT revolutionised the communication network in the towns and even villages of India. Because of Rajiv Gandhi’s efforts, the PCO (public call office) revolution took place. PCO booth connected even the rural areas to the world outside.

In 1986, MTNL (Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited) was established which helped in the spread of telephone network. With Sam Pitroda as an advisor to the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, six technology missions related to telecommunications, water, literacy, immunisation, dairy and oil seeds were established.


Rajiv Gandhi promoted science and technology and associated industries. One of the ways was to reduce import quotas, taxes and tariffs on such industries, especially computers, airlines, defence and telecommunications. The Indian Railways was modernised after introduction of computerised railway tickets.

Voting Age

As he was a youth himself, Rajiv Gandhi sought to give empower the youths. Towards that end, the 61st Amendment Act of the Constitution was passed in 1989, lowering the voting age from 21 years to 18 years. This move allowed the youths to have a say in choosing Lok Sabha MPs and MLAs in the states.

Panchayati Raj

Rajiv Gandhi is credited with laying the foundation of Panchayati Raj institutions in order to take democracy to the grassroots level. Though Panchayati Raj was created by the 73rd and the 74th Amendments to the Constitution in 1992, a year after Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated, the background was prepared during the Congress government led by him.


Rajiv Gandhi as prime minister announced National Policy on Education (NPE) in 1986 to modernise and expand higher education programmes across the country. With NPE in place, residential schools called Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas, under the central government, were set up to bring out the best of rural talent. These schools provide free residential education from grades six to twelve to the rural population.