National park

What is National park?
• National park is an area with enough ecological, geo-morphological and natural significance with rich fauna and flora, which is designed to protect and to develop wildlife or its environment.
• The rights of the people living inside this areas are tightly regulated and activities like grazing, hunting, forestry or cultivation, encroachment, destruction of habitats and other activities are strictly prohibited.
• But most national parks provide outdoor recreation, camping opportunities and are designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation activities.

What is the Core Area?
• In this zone, the emphasis is placed on preserving the natural environment and educating the public.
• Human activity is strictly regulated.
• There are no permanent inhabitants in the Core Area.
• The Core Area plays a role in the protection of natural, cultural and landscape heritage; it is in this zone that National Park regulations and associated procedures are applied.

What is the Buffer Zone?
• This is a demarcated zone around the Core Area.
• The Buffer Zone plays a role in implementing measures to ensure the protection, promotion and sustainable development of the National Park.

What are Wildlife Sanctuaries?
• Wildlife Sanctuaries or wildlife refuges are home to various endangered species of wild animals and these animals are safe from hunting, predation or competition and safeguarded from extinction in their natural habitat.
• In Wildlife sanctuaries harvesting timbers, cultivation, collection of forest products are allowed with permission.

What are Protected areas?
• Protected areas are at the core of efforts towards biodiversity conservation, providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species and are key to buffering unpredictable impacts of impeding climate change.
• Thus, protected areas are geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature and cultural values.
• In protected areas human occupation and exploitation of resources is limited.

What are Biosphere Reserves?
• Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems which are internationally recognized within the framework of the Man and the Biosphere ( MAB) programme of the UNESCO and are not formed according to the guidelines of the Wildlife (protection) Act, 1972 and may have one more national parks or wildlife sanctuaries in it.
• Under the MAB programme there is a World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR ) and within this network, exchange of information, experience and personnel is allowed.