Jal Jeevan Mission

* Mission aims to give tap-water to all households by

*It seeks to converge with other Central and State Government Schemes to achieve its objectives of sustainable water supply management across India.

Focus Areas

* Focus on integrated demand and supply-side management of water at local level, including creation of local infrastructure for source sustainability such as groundwater recharge, rainwater harvesting, and
management of household wastewater for reuse in

National Digital Health Mission

* National Digital Health Mission aims to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and transparency of health services in the country. 

* Under National Digital Health Mission, every Indian will get a Health ID card that will store all medical details of the person including prescriptions, treatment, diagnostic reports and discharge summaries. 

* It comes under the Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB PM-JAY).

* The citizens will be able to give their doctors and health providers one-time access to this data during visits to the hospital for consultation.

* However, access to the confidential medical data will have to be given separately for each visit due to fears over data confidentiality.

*The National Digital Health Mission will allow patients to access health services remotely through tele-consultation and e-pharmacies, as well as offer other health-related benefits.


* An adjournment suspends the work in a sitting for a specified time, which may be hours, days or weeks.

* In this case, the time of reassembly is specified. 

* An adjournment only terminates a sitting and not a session of the House.

* The power of adjournment lies with the presiding officer of the House.

* A session of the Indian parliament is the time period during which a House meets almost every day continuously to transact business.

# There are usually three sessions in a year. They are the

* Budget Session (February to May); 

* Monsoon Session (July to September); and 

* Winter Session (November to December).

# A session contains many meetings. Each meeting has two sittings – morning sitting from 11 am to 1 pm and post-lunch sitting from 2 pm to 6 pm.

* A sitting of Parliament can be terminated by adjournment, adjournment sine die, prorogation or dissolution.

* Technically, a session of the Indian Parliament is the period between the first sitting of a House and its prorogation or dissolution.

* The period between the prorogation of a House and its reassembly in a new session is called ‘recess’.


* Summoning is the process of calling all members of the Parliament to meet.

It is the duty of Indian President to summon each House of the Parliament from time to time.

* The maximum gap between two sessions of Parliament cannot be more than six months. 

Adjournment Sine Die

* Adjournment sine die means terminating a sitting of Parliament for an indefinite period.

* In other words, when the House is adjourned without naming a day for reassembly, it is called adjournment sine die.

* The power of adjournment sine die lies with the presiding officer of the House.

# The presiding officer of a House can call a sitting of the House before the date or time to which it has been adjourned or at any time after the House has been adjourned sine die.


* Prorogation means the termination of a session of the House by an order made by the President under article 85(2)(a) of the Constitution.

* Prorogation terminates both the sitting and session of the House. Usually, within a few days after the House is adjourned sine die by the presiding officer, the President issues a notification for the prorogation of the session.

* However, the President can also prorogue the House while in session.


* A dissolution ends the very life of the existing House, and a new House is constituted after general elections are held.

*  Rajya Sabha, being a permanent House, is not subject to dissolution. Only the Lok Sabha is subject to dissolution.

# The dissolution of the Lok Sabha may take place in either of two ways:

* Automatic dissolution: On the expiry of its tenure –  five years or the terms as extended during a national emergency.

* Order of President: If President is authorized by Council of Ministers,
he can dissolve Lok Sabha, even before the end of the term.

. He may also dissolve Lok Sabha if Council of Ministers loses confidence and no party is able to form the government. Once the Lok Sabha is dissolved before the completion of its normal tenure, the dissolution is irrevocable.

Right to Information (RTI)

* Right to Information (RTI) is an act of the Parliament of India which sets out the rules and procedures regarding citizens’ right to information.

# Under the provisions of RTI Act, any citizen of India may request information from a “public authority” (a body of Government or “instrumentality of State”) which is required to reply expeditiously or within thirty days.

* In case of matter involving a petitioner’s life and liberty, the information has to be provided within 48 hours.

# The Act also requires every public authority to computerize their records for wide dissemination and to proactively publish certain categories of information so that the citizens need minimum recourse to request for information formally.


* The government has set up the Prime Minister’s Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situations Fund (PM-CARES Fund) to deal with any kind of emergency or distress situation like posed by the COVID- 19 pandemic.

* The Fund is a public charitable trust with the Prime Minister as its Chairman. Other Members include Defence Minister, Home Minister and Finance Minister.

* The Fund enables micro-donations as a result of which a large number of people will be able to contribute with the smallest of denominations.

* The Fund will strengthen disaster management capacities and encourage research on protecting citizens.

*The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has clarified that contributions by companies towards the PM-CARES Fund will count towards mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility expenditure.

Central Information Commission (CIC)

* CIC was established in 2005 by the Central Government under the provisions of Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2005.

* The Chief Information Commissioner heads the Central Information Commission.

* The Central Information Commission consists of the Central Information Commissioner and more than ten Information commissioners. 

* The President of India appoints the Chief Information commissioner and the information commissioners on the recommendation of the committee consisting of the Prime Minister as chairperson, the leader of the opposition in the Lok Sabha and union cabinet ministers nominated by the Prime Minister.

*It hears appeals from information-seekers who have not been satisfied by the public authority and also addresses major issues concerning the RTI Act.

* CIC submits an annual report to the Union government on the implementation of the provisions of RTI Act.

# State Information Commission

* The Right to Information Act of 2005 provides for the creation of a State Information Commission at the state level.

*The State Information Commission is a high powered independent body which inter-alia looks into the complaints made to it and decide the appeals.

* It entertains complaints and appeals pertaining to offices, financial institutions, public sector undertakings, etc.under the concerned state government.

* The Commission consists of a State Chief Information Commissioner and not more than ten State Information Commissioners appointed by the Governor.