India’s First Architectures

1. First dam in India: Kallanai Dam, one of the world’s oldest, still in use; build across the Kaveri river in Thiruchirapalli District in the state of Tamil Nadu in South India. Originally constructed by the Chola king Karikala Cholan around the 2nd century BC.

2. First Stepwell still existing: Mata Bhavani’s Stepwell, built in the 11th century in Gujarat

3. First temple constructed from a single rock, still standing: Kailasa temple, Ellora, built in 744 CE by Rashtrakuta king Krishna I

4. First temple in Kalinga architecture still standing: Konark Sun Temple, Puri, Odisha, built in 1255 AD

5. First Indian temple with many interconnected structures still standing: Brihadeeswarar Temple, Tanjore, Tamil Nadu, built in 1002 AD

6. First true dome in IndiaAlai Darwaza, Qutb complex, Delhi, built in 1311 CE, by first Khalji Sultan of Delhi, Ala-ud-din Khalji

7. First true arch in India: Balban’s tomb, Mehrauli Archeological Park, Delhi, built c. 1287 CE, by Ghiyas ud din Balban of Mamluk dynasty

8. First garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent, also the first with Persian double-dome: Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi, built 1562–1571 CE

9. First church in India: St. Thomas Church, Palayoor Built in 52 AD under leadership of St. Thomas the Apostle its a Mix of Persian and Kerala architecture

10. First mosque in India: Cheraman Juma Mosque in Methala, Kodungallur Taluk, Thrissur