Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke In 1665. Some cells have membrane-bound organelles and some do not.

Depending upon the internal structure of the cell, two types of cells are found in an organism namely Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic. We will be studying the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells in this article.

Cells are also known as ‘a small room’. It is the functional and structural unit of life. It is a small united area where all kinds of actions and reactions collectively take place.

Organisms that are made up of single cells are known as single-celled organisms or unicellular and many cells are known as multi-cellular organisms. In 1665, the cell was first discovered by Robert Hook.

When scientists studied cells of various living organisms from an electron microscope, it was found that many organisms have no distinct nucleus surrounded by a cell membrane.

Thus, two types of cells are found in the organisms: eukaryotic and prokaryotic depending on whether cells contain membrane-bound organelles or not.

Their genetic materials are enclosed by a nuclear envelope or not. Let us study through this article the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

What are Prokaryotes?

According to the morphological point of view, prokaryotic cells are the most primitive cells. They do not have a definite nucleus which includes bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).

The chromatin bodies remain scattered inside the cytoplasm. In prokaryotes, asexual division occurs basically in binary fission. Prokaryotes are smaller than eukaryotes.

What are Eukaryotes?

It is believed that eukaryotes have evolved from prokaryotes. They have been characterised by their membrane nucleus.

They contain organelles like mitochondria bounded by membranes and are located in the cytoplasm.

They have a definite nucleus. The chromatin bodies are enclosed by a nuclear membrane.

Both asexual and sexual division occurs in eukaryotes. They are larger than prokaryotes and show better structural organisation and increased functional efficiency than prokaryotes.

Now let us study the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic CellEukaryotic cell
Size is 0.1- 5.0 umSize is 5-100 um
Nucleus is absentNucleus is present
Membrane-bound nucleus absent.Membrane-bound Nucleus is present.
One chromosome is present, but not true chromosome plastidsMore than one number of chromosomes is present.
Lysosomes and Peroxisomes absentLysosomes and Peroxisomes present
Microtubules absentMicrotubules present
Endoplasmic reticulum absentEndoplasmic reticulum present
Mitochondria absentMitochondria present
Cytoskeleton absentCytoskeleton present
Ribosomes smallerRibosomes larger
Vesicles presentVesicles present
Golgi apparatus absentGolgi apparatus present
Chloroplasts absent; chlorophyll scattered in the cytoplasmChloroplasts present in plants
Submicroscopic in size Flagella is present and made up of only one fibreMicroscopic in size, membrane-bound
Cell wall chemically complexedThe cell wall is present in plants and fungi and chemically simpler
Vacuoles absentVacuoles present
The permeability of the nuclear membrane is not presentThe permeability of Nuclear membrane is selective
Sexual reproduction is absentSexual reproduction is present
Endocytosis and exocytosis are absent.Endocytosis and exocytosis occurred
It may have pili and fimbriae.Pili and fimbriae are absent
Transcription occurs in the cytoplasmTranscription occurs inside the nucleus.
Examples: Bacteria and ArchaeaExamples: Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals

Therefore, we can say that on the basis of genetic materials enclosed by a nuclear envelope, cells are divided into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes don’t have membrane-bound organelles whereas eukaryotes have.