Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke In 1665. Some cells have membrane-bound organelles and some do not.
Depending upon the internal structure of the cell, two types of cells are found in an organism namely Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic. We will be studying the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells in this article.
Cells are also known as ‘a small room’. It is the functional and structural unit of life. It is a small united area where all kinds of actions and reactions collectively take place.
Organisms that are made up of single cells are known as single-celled organisms or unicellular and many cells are known as multi-cellular organisms. In 1665, the cell was first discovered by Robert Hook.
When scientists studied cells of various living organisms from an electron microscope, it was found that many organisms have no distinct nucleus surrounded by a cell membrane.
Thus, two types of cells are found in the organisms: eukaryotic and prokaryotic depending on whether cells contain membrane-bound organelles or not.
Their genetic materials are enclosed by a nuclear envelope or not. Let us study through this article the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
What are Prokaryotes?
According to the morphological point of view, prokaryotic cells are the most primitive cells. They do not have a definite nucleus which includes bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
The chromatin bodies remain scattered inside the cytoplasm. In prokaryotes, asexual division occurs basically in binary fission. Prokaryotes are smaller than eukaryotes.
What are Eukaryotes?
It is believed that eukaryotes have evolved from prokaryotes. They have been characterised by their membrane nucleus.
They contain organelles like mitochondria bounded by membranes and are located in the cytoplasm.
They have a definite nucleus. The chromatin bodies are enclosed by a nuclear membrane.
Both asexual and sexual division occurs in eukaryotes. They are larger than prokaryotes and show better structural organisation and increased functional efficiency than prokaryotes.
Now let us study the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
|Prokaryotic Cell||Eukaryotic cell|
|Size is 0.1- 5.0 um||Size is 5-100 um|
|Nucleus is absent||Nucleus is present|
|Membrane-bound nucleus absent.||Membrane-bound Nucleus is present.|
|One chromosome is present, but not true chromosome plastids||More than one number of chromosomes is present.|
|Lysosomes and Peroxisomes absent||Lysosomes and Peroxisomes present|
|Microtubules absent||Microtubules present|
|Endoplasmic reticulum absent||Endoplasmic reticulum present|
|Mitochondria absent||Mitochondria present|
|Cytoskeleton absent||Cytoskeleton present|
|Ribosomes smaller||Ribosomes larger|
|Vesicles present||Vesicles present|
|Golgi apparatus absent||Golgi apparatus present|
|Chloroplasts absent; chlorophyll scattered in the cytoplasm||Chloroplasts present in plants|
|Submicroscopic in size Flagella is present and made up of only one fibre||Microscopic in size, membrane-bound|
|Cell wall chemically complexed||The cell wall is present in plants and fungi and chemically simpler|
|Vacuoles absent||Vacuoles present|
|The permeability of the nuclear membrane is not present||The permeability of Nuclear membrane is selective|
|Sexual reproduction is absent||Sexual reproduction is present|
|Endocytosis and exocytosis are absent.||Endocytosis and exocytosis occurred|
|It may have pili and fimbriae.||Pili and fimbriae are absent|
|Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm||Transcription occurs inside the nucleus.|
|Examples: Bacteria and Archaea||Examples: Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals|
Therefore, we can say that on the basis of genetic materials enclosed by a nuclear envelope, cells are divided into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes don’t have membrane-bound organelles whereas eukaryotes have.