Railway sleepers, also called railroad ties, railway ties or crossties, are an important railway component. Generally, the rail sleeper is always laying between two rail tracks to keep the correct space of gauge. In the recent time, concrete sleepers are widely used, especially in Europe and Asia. And in UK, steel ties are common. Besides, plastic composite ties are also employed in the rail track transportation.
The functions of sleepers in railway works are as follows:
(i) The primary function of a sleeper is to grip the rail to gauge and to distribute the rail loads to ballast with acceptable induced pressure.
(ii) The side functions of a sleeper include the avoidance of both longitudinal and lateral track movement.
(iii) It also helps to enhance correct line and level of the rails.