Balance diet – It means a diet which contains right amount and types of foods and drink to provide essential nutrients and energy required for proper development of the body cells, tissue and organs. Balance diet should contain right amount of vitamins and minerals for overall development of the body.
Vitamins are organic compounds required in small quantities for optimal health. It enhances the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Vitamins are required for growth in children, formation of hormones, blood cells, tissues and bones. Vitamins cannot be synthesised/produced by the human body, thus, our diet must contain vitamins.
Types of Vitamins:
|Vitamin||Chemical Name||Food Sources||Deficiency Diseases|
|A||Retinol||Milk, eggs, fish, butter, cheese and liver.||Night blindness, Skin dryness.|
|B1||Thiamine||Legumes, whole grain, nuts.||Beri-beri.|
|B2||Riboflavin||Egg, milk, cheese, nuts, bread products.||Inflammation of tongue, sores in the corners of the mouth.|
|B3||Niacin or Nicotinic acid||Meat, fish, pea nuts, whole grain.||skin disease, diarrhoea, depression, dementia.|
|B5||Pantothenic acid||Eggs, liver, dairy products.||Fatigue, muscle cramp.|
|B6||Pyridoxine||Organ meats, cereals, corn.||Anaemia, kidney stones, nausea, depression.|
|B12||Cyanocobalamin||Meat, fish.||pale skin, constipation, fatigue.|
|C||Ascorbic acid||Oranges, tomatoes, sweet and white potatoes.||Scurvy, anaemia, ability to fight infections decreases.|
|D||Calciferol||Direct sunlight, fish oils, eggs.||Rickets, osteomalacia.|
|E||Tocopherol||Vegetable oils, olives, tomatoes, almonds, meat, eggs.||Neurological problems, problems of reproductive system.|
|K||Phylloquinone or Naphthoquinone||Soyabeans, green leafy vegetables, dairy products, meat.||Failure to clot blood.|
Vitamins are further divided into two groups- (1) Fat soluble vitamins, and (2) Water soluble vitamins.
Fat soluble vitamins – A, D, E and K.
Water soluble vitamins – Vitamin-B complex (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12), C and Folic acid.
Minerals are also essential for proper development of the body. Minerals helps in building strong teeth and bones, skin, hair, proper function of nerves, muscle contraction, maintains heart functions, etc.
Types of Minerals:
|Minerals||Food Sources||Properties||Deficiency Diseases|
|Calcium||Milk, cheese and other diary products, nuts, green leafy vegetables.||Build and maintain bones and teeth, control heart beat and blood pressure.||Weak teeth and bones, poor development of body.|
|Iron||Meat, liver, egg yolk, nuts, cereals.||It is required for transportation of Oxygen in the blood. Maintains Haemoglobin level in the blood.||Anaemia, weak immunity.|
|Iodine||Iodine-enriched salt, milk, cheese.||Iodine is the main building block of thyroid hormone, T3 and T4. It is essential for proper development of the body.||Goitre.|
|Phosphorus||Meat, fish, poultry, cereals.||It is required in building strong bones and teeth. It also repair cells. It is a component of DNA and RNA.||Poor body growth, weak bones and teeth.|
|Sodium||Salt||Maintains water balance, blood pressure and nervous system.||Low blood pressure, muscle cramp.|
|Zinc||Meat, liver, fish, milk, cheese and other diary products.||It is important for the function for the enzymes in the body. It builds immunity and regulates cholesterol levels.||Retarded body growth|
|Potassium||Fish, milk, pulses, nuts, green vegetables, meat.||It maintains the pH balance of the blood. It controls the water balance of the body.||Low blood pressure, weak muscles.|
|Magnesium||Green vegetables, nuts, cereals.||Magnesium builds immunity. It is important for nerve cell function and muscle contraction.||It affects nervous system.|