1. Guru Nanak (1469-1539) – Guru Nanak was born at Talwandi (now called Nankana Sahib) in Punjab. He founded the Sikh religion. He was the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated world-wide on Kartik Puranmashi, the full-moon day. Guru Nanak’s teachings can be found in the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Granth Sahib is a vast collection of revelatory verses recorded in Gurmukhi. Guru Nanak appointed Bhai Lehna as the successor Guru, renaming him as Guru Angad. Guru Nanak died on 22 September 1539 in Kartarpur, at the age of 70.
2. Guru Angad (1539-1552) – Guru Angad was the second of the ten Sikh Gurus. He invented the Gurumukhi script. It became the medium of writing the Punjabi language and the hymns of the Gurus were expressed in this language.
3. Guru Amar Das (1552-1574) – Guru Amar Das was the third of the ten Sikh Gurus. He strengthened the tradition of the free kitchen, Guru Ka Langar (started by Guru Nanak. He completely abolished the custom of Sati amongst the Sikhs.
4. Guru Ram Das (1574-1581) – Guru Ram Das was the fourth of the ten Sikh Gurus. Emperor Akbar donated a plot of land to Guru Ram Das on which Golden Temple was later constructed. He founded the city of Amritsar.
5. Guru Arjun Dev (1581-1606) – Guru Arjun Dev was the fifth of the ten Sikh Gurus. He composed Adigranth (Guru Granth Sahib). Guru Arjun Dev was tortured to death by Mughal Emperor Jahangir in 1606.
6. Guru Hargovind (1606-1645) – Guru Hargovind was the sixth of the ten Sikh Gurus. He built the Akal Takht. Guru Hargobind built a fortress at Amritsar called Lohgarh “Fortress of steel”. He tr
7. Guru Har Rai (1645-1661) – Guru Har Rai was the seventh of the ten Sikh Gurus. Dara Shikoh (the eldest son of emperor Shah Jahan) came to Guru Har Rai asking for help in the war of succession launched by his half-brother Aurangzeb.
8. Guru Har Kishan (1661-1664) – Guru Har Kishan was the eight of the ten Sikh Gurus. Har Kishan was only five years old when he succeeded his father, Guru Har Rai, as Guru. Thus, he was the youngest guru in Sikh history.
9. Guru Teg Bahadur (1664-1675) – Guru Teg Bahadur was the ninth of the ten Sikh Gurus. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb wanted to convert India into an Islamic country. In this process, Guru Teg Bahadur was tortured to force him to convert into Islam. Aurangzeb executed Guru Teg Bahadur when he refused to convert into Islam.
10. Guru Govind Singh (1675-1708) – Guru Goving Singh was the last of the ten Sikh Gurus. He was born in Patna, Bihar. He founded the Khalsa Pantha. He organised a community of warriors who were trained in Guerilla warfare.