The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived dynasties. The Delhi sultanates ruled from 1206 AD to 1526 AD, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty. The five dynasties which are together termed as the Delhi Sultanate are listed below:
1. Mamluk or Slave Dynasty (1206 AD to 1290 AD)
2. Khilji Dynasty (1290 AD to 1320 AD)
3. Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 AD to 1414 AD)
4. Sayyid Dynasty (1414 to 1451 AD)
5. Lodhi Dynasty (1451 AD to 1526 AD)
|Mamluk or Slave Dynasty|
|Qutubuddin Aibak (1206 – 1210)-|
1. The defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan in the second battle of Tarain in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori laid the foundation of Muslim rule in India. After the death of Muhammed Ghori, his slave Qutubuddin Aibak took the charge and became the first sultan of Delhi.
2. For his generosity, he earned the sobriquet Lakh-Bakhsh (giver of Lakhs.).
3. He built two mosques-Quwat-ul-Islam at Delhi and Adhai din ka Jhonpra at Ajmer.
4. He started the construction of Qutub Minar which was dedicated to famous Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhityar Kaki.
5. He died while playing Polo in the year 1210.
Iltutmish (1210 – 1236)-
1. He was a slave of Qutubuddin Aibak.
2. He divided his empire into Iqtas, known as Iqtadari system under which land were assigned to nobles and officers in lieu of salary.
3. He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital – the two basic coins of the Sultanate period.
4. He built the Hauz-i-Shamsi reservoir in Mehrauli in 1230.
5. He completed the Qutub Minar.
6. He formed Turkan-i-Chahalgani or Chalisa (a group of 40 powerful Turkish nobles).
7. He saved Delhi Sultanate from the wrath of Chengiz Khan, the Mongol leader.
Razia Sultan (1236 – 1240)-
1. She succeeded her father Iltutmish in 1236.
2. She was the first lady to sit on the throne of Delhi.
3. She was the the first and the last Muslim lady who ever ruled India’.
4. Her promotion of Jalaluddin Yakut, an Abyssinian, to the important offices provoked the Turkish officers.
5. She was killed along with her husband Altunia by Bahram Shah, a son of Iltutmish.
Balban (1266 – 1286)-
1. Balban ascended the throne in 1266.
2. His real name was Baharuddin.
3. He crushed the power of Turkan-i-Chahalgani or Chalisa which stabilized the Sultanate rule.
4. He established the military department Diwani-i-Arz.
5. For defeating the Mongols he got the sobriquet Ulagh Khan.
|Jalaluddin Khilji (1290 – 1296) –|
1. He founded the Khilji Dynasty.
2. He was a weak ruler and adopted a lenient policy towards the Mongols.
3. He was succeeded by his nephew Ali Gurshap, who took the title of Ala-ud-din.
Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316)-
1. Alauddin Khilji killed Jalaluddin Khilji and and succeeded the throne in 1296.
2. He was the most powerful ruler of this dynasty.
3. He built Hauz Khas and Jamait Khana Mosque.
4. He separated religion from politics. He proclaimed – Kingship knows no Kinship.
5. He seized the famous Kohinoor diamond from the ruler of Malwa.
6. He created new department viz Diwan-i-Mustakhraj to enquire into the revenue arears and to collect them.
7. He established an effective spy system.
8. He introduced the first permanent standing army of India.
9. He introduced a free market policy with effective price control system.
|Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-1325)-|
1. Ghazni Malik the last king of the Khilji dynasty, Khusrau Khan and assumed the title Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
2. He founded the city Tughlaqabad.
Mohammad-bin Tughlaq (1325-1351)-
1. His real name was Jauna Khan.
2. He was a very knowledgeable person with deep knowledge in philosophy, logic, mathematics and medicine.
3. He introduced token currency using brass and copper coins but failed due to absence of central mint and forgery of coins.
4. He shifted his capital from Delhi to Devgiri which he renamed Daulatabad, to control the Deccan region but failed in his attempts and shifted back to Delhi.
5. The famous Moroccon traveller Ibn Batuta visited India during his reign.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388)-
1. He was the son of a Hindu princess of Dipalpur.
2. He established many cities such as Firuzabad, Fatebabad, Jaunpur and Hissar.
3. He made Iqtadari system hereditary.
4. He rebuilt two storeys of Qutub Minar which were damaged by lightening in 1368 AD.
5. He established Diwan-i-Khairat (department for poor and needy people) and Diwan-l-Bundagan (department of slaves).
|Khizr Khan (1414-1421)-|
1. He was a lieutenant of Timur.
2. He was a Sayyid and so his dynasty is called Sayyid Dynasty.
Other rulers of Sayyid Dynasty
Mubarak Shah (1421-1434)
Muhammad Shah (1434-1443)
Alam Shah (1443-1451)
|Bahlol Lodhi (1451-1488)-|
1. He founded the Lodhi dynasty by usurping the throne from the last of the Sayyid rulers.
2. Bahlol belonged to the Shahu Khel clan of the Lodhi Pashtun tribe.
Sikandar Lodhi (1489-1517)-
1. He was the son of Bahlol Lodhi.
2. In 1504, he founded the city of Agra and made it his capital.
3. He introduced the Gaz-i-Sikandari (Sikandar’s yard) of 32 digits for measuring cultivated fields.
Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-1526 AD)-
1. He was the last king of Lodhi dynasty and the last Sultan of Delhi.
2. He was the son of Sikandar Lodhi.
3. He was defeated and killed by Babur in the first battle of panipat in 1526 AD.